News & Articles

Studies Examining the Reduction of Disease Burden

Seasonal Trivalent Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy and the Incidence of Stillbirth: Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

April 1, 2016

Regan et. al Clinical Infectious Diseases

Mothers who received seasonal TIV during pregnancy were significantly less likely to experience stillbirth compared with unvaccinated mothers. These results support the safety of seasonal influenza immunization during pregnancy and suggest a protective effect.

The Benefit of Early Influenza Treatment of Pregnant Women Hospitalized with Laboratory Confirmed Influenza

February 4, 2016

Oboho et al. The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Pregnant women are at higher risk for serious illness and complications, including death, from influenza. For expectant mothers hospitalized with flu, early treatment with the influenza antiviral drug oseltamivir may shorten their time in the hospital, especially in severe cases, suggests a study published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases. The findings also underscore the importance of flu vaccination for this risk group.

Association Between Hospitalization With Community-Acquired Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Pneumonia and Prior Receipt of Influenza Vaccination

October 13, 2015

Grijalva et al. JAMA

The Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study was a prospective observational multicenter study of hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia conducted from January 2010 through June 2012 at 4 US sites. In this case-control study, the authors used EPIC data from patients 6 months or older with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and verified vaccination status during the influenza seasons and excluded patients with recent hospitalization, from chronic care residential facilities, and with severe immunosuppression. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, comparing the odds of vaccination between influenza-positive (case) and influenza-negative (control) patients with pneumonia, controlling for demographics, comorbidities, season, study site, and timing of disease onset. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as (1- adjusted odds ratio) x 100%.

U.S. Hospitalizations for Pneumonia after a Decade of Pneumococcal Vaccination

August 11, 2013

Griffin et al. The New England Journal of Medicine

The introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the U.S. childhood immunization schedule in 2000 has substantially reduced the incidence of vaccine-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease in young children and in unvaccinated older children and adults. By 2004, hospitalizations associated with pneumonia from any cause had also declined markedly among young children. Because of concerns about increases in disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes, we wanted to determine whether the reduction in pneumonia-related hospitalizations among young children had been sustained through 2009 and whether such hospitalizations in older age groups had also declined.

Historical Comparisons of Morbidity and Mortality for Vaccine-Preventable Disease in the United States

November 14, 2007

Roush and Murphy. JAMA

To compare morbidity and mortality before and after widespread implementation of national vaccine recommendations for 13 vaccine-preventable diseases for which recommendations were in place prior to 2005 the authors assed.prevaccine baselines based on representative historical data from primary sources and compared them to the most recent morbidity (2006) and mortality (2004) data for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella (including congenital rubella syndrome), invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), acute hepatitis B, hepatitis A, varicella, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and smallpox.